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Stability and Transport of Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles in Groundwater and Surface Water
Link to Journal Abstract
The effects of groundwater and surface water constituents (i.e., natural organic matter [NOM] and the presence of a complex assortment of ions) on graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) were investigated to provide additional insight into the factors contributing to fate and the mechanisms involved in their transport in soil, groundwater, and surface water environments. The stability and transport of GONPs was investigated using dynamic light scattering, electrokinetic characterization, and packed bed column experiments. Stability results showed that the hydrodynamic diameter of the GONPs at a similar ionic strength (2.1±1.1 mM) was 10 times greater in groundwater environments compared with surface water and NaCl and MgCl2 suspensions. Transport results confirmed that in groundwater, GONPs are less stable and are more likely to be removed during transport in porous media. In surface water and MgCl2 and NaCl suspensions, the relative recovery was 94%±3% indicating that GONPs will be very mobile in surface waters. Additional experiments were carried out in monovalent (KCl) and divalent (CaCl2) salts across an environmentally relevant concentration range (0.1–10 mg/L) of NOM using Suwannee River humic acid. Overall, the transport and stability of GONPs was increased in the presence of NOM. This study confirms that planar “carbonaceous-oxide” materials follow traditional theory for stability and transport, both due to their response to ionic strength, valence, and NOM presence and is the first to look at GONP transport across a wide range of representative conditions found in surface and groundwater environments.
For this study, the effects of groundwater and surface water constituents on graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) were investigated to provide additional insight into the factors contributing to fate and the mechanisms involved in their transport in soil, groundwater, and surface water environments.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article
Exposure Or Hazard Target
Method Of Study
Environmental Fate and Transport
Risk Exposure Group
Environmental Engineering Science, 2014, 31(7): 350-359
Environmental Engineering Science
Lanphere JD, Rogers B, Luth C, Bolster CH, Walker SL
Last updated on September 16, 2014
This work is supported in part by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the National Science Foundation
under NSF Award Number EEC-0118007.
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