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Penetration of Nanoparticles into Human Skin
Link to Journal Abstract
Exposure of human skin to nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing with the development of nanotechnology and new applications of NPs in medicine. Safety concerns have sparked debate on the capacity of NPs to penetrate through skin and enter into the body. This article attempts to summarize the recent evidence on whether NPs penetrate human skin and the factors that may affect the penetration. Skin structure and penetration mechanisms are reviewed to provide background information. Size, shape, formulation, surface properties and application methods and their effects on skin penetration are specifically discussed. Finally, the relationship between skin penetration and nanotoxicity is reviewed to further emphasise the importance of the research in this area.
This article attempts to summarize the recent evidence on whether NPs penetrate human skin and the factors that may affect the penetration. Also, the relationship between skin penetration and nanotoxicity is reviewed to further emphasise the importance of the research in this area.
Exposure Or Hazard Target
Method Of Study
Risk Exposure Group
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 19(35): 6353-6366 (October 2013)
Current Pharmaceutical Design
Liang XW, Xu ZP, Grice J, Zvyagin AV, Roberts MS, Liu X
Last updated on October 11, 2013
This work is supported in part by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the National Science Foundation
under NSF Award Number EEC-0118007.
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