ICON Web & News
Search Using OECD Database
Return to Previous Page
Addition or Correction
Migration of Ag- and TiO2-(nano)particles from textiles into artificial sweat under physical stress: Experiments and exposure modeling
Link to Journal Abstract
Engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are increasingly used to functionalize textiles taking advantage e.g. of the antimicrobial activity of silver (Ag)-ENP or the UV-absorption of titania (TiO2)-ENP. Mobilization and migration of ENPs from the textile into human sweat can result in dermal exposure to these nanoobjects and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAA). In this study we assessed exposure to NOAA migrating from commercially available textiles to artificial sweat by an experimental setup that simulates wear-and-tear during physical activity. By combining physical stress with incubation in alkaline and acidic artificial sweat solutions we experimentally realized a worst case scenario for wearing functionalized textiles during sports activities. This experimental approach is not limited to NOAA, but can be used for any other textile additive. Out of four investigated textiles, one T-Shirt and one pair of trousers with claimed antimicrobial properties were found to release Ag <450 nm in detectable amounts (23-74 µg/g/L). Textiles containing TiO2 for UV protection did not release significant amounts of TiO2 <450 nm, but the antimicrobial T-Shirt released both TiO2 and Ag <450 nm. The silver was present in dissolved and particulate form, whereas TiO2 was mainly found as particulate. On the basis of our experimental results we calculated external dermal exposure to Ag and TiO2 for male and female adults per use. For silver maximal amounts of 17.1 and 8.2 µg/kg bodyweight were calculated for total and particulate Ag <450 nm, respectively. For TiO2 the exposure levels amount to maximal 11.6 µg/kg bodyweight for total (mainly particulate) TiO2. In comparison with other human exposure pathways, dermal exposure to NOAA from textiles can be considered comparably minor for TiO2-NOAA, but not for Ag-NOAA.
In this study the authors assessed exposure to nanoobjects and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAA) migrating from commercially available textiles to artificial sweat by an experimental setup that simulates wear-and-tear during physical activity.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article
Exposure Or Hazard Target
Method Of Study
Material Analysis and Applications
Risk Exposure Group
Environmental Science & Technology, 2013, 47(17): 9979-9987
Environmental Science & Technology
von Gotz N, Lorenz C, Windler L, Nowack B, Heuberger MP, Hungerbuehler K
Last updated on October 18, 2013
This work is supported in part by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the National Science Foundation
under NSF Award Number EEC-0118007.
Why Join Us?
Mission and Strategy
Good Nano Guide
Nano EHS Research Needs
Current Practices Survey