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The effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the metallome in freshwater mussels
Link to Journal Abstract
The use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nanoZnO) as sunscreens has raised concerns about their safety and release in the aquatic environment through swimming activities and within municipally treated wastewaters. This study's purpose was to examine the effects of nanoZnO on the elemental composition (metallome) in exposed freshwater mussels, Elliptio complanata. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to an environmentally realistic (low) concentration (2 ́g/L) of nanoZnO and zinc chloride. The mussels were also exposed to a physically and chemically treated municipal effluent (ME), both alone and in the presence of both forms of Zn. The metallome profile was characterized by the following 15 elements in gills, digestive gland and gonad tissues: Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V and Zn. The levels of metallothioneins (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the digestive gland were also measured as biomarkers of toxic effects. The data revealed that exposure to nanoZnO increased the total levels of Zn, MT and LPO in the digestive gland. Discriminate function analysis revealed that the digestive gland responded the most to exposure to either nanoZnO or Zn2 +. For nanoZnO, the observed changes in Al, As and Mo in the digestive gland offered the best discrimination from dissolved Zn2 +. Co-exposure of nanoZnO with the ME changed the metallome profile closer to dissolved Zn2 +, suggesting a common interaction site within the ME. This was observed in changes in Ni, Cu, Se and Zn in the digestive gland of exposed mussels. Canonical analysis of essential and non-essential elements revealed that exposure to nanoZnO increased the relationships between LPO and the sum of essential elements in the digestive gland. Conversely, exposure to dissolved Zn2 + and the ME decreased the relationship between the sum of non-essential elements and LPO and MT. In conclusion, the use of a “metallomic” approach was used to discriminate changes following exposure to nanoZnO and dissolved Zn in freshwater mussels and provided insights into the interaction of forms of Zn in ME towards mussels.
This study's purpose was to examine the effects of nanoZnO on the elemental composition (metallome) in exposed freshwater mussels, Elliptio complanata. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to an environmentally realistic (low) concentration (2 ́g/L) of nanoZnO and zinc chloride. The levels of metallothioneins (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the digestive gland were measured as biomarkers of toxic effects.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article
Exposure Or Hazard Target
Method Of Study
Environmental Fate and Transport
Risk Exposure Group
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, 158(1): 22-28 (June 2013)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology
Gagne F, Turcotte P, Auclair J, Gagnon C
Last updated on June 24, 2013
This work is supported in part by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the National Science Foundation
under NSF Award Number EEC-0118007.
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