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Fate and transformation of silver nanoparticles in urban wastewater systems
Link to Journal Abstract
Discharge of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from textiles and cosmetics, todays major application areas for metallic Ag-NP, into wastewater is inevitable. Transformation and removal processes in sewers and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) will determine the impact of Ag-NP on aquatic and terrestrial environments, via the effluents of the WWTP and via the use of digested sludge as fertilizer. We thus conducted experiments addressing the behavior of Ag-NP in sewers and in WWTP.
We spiked Ag-NP to a 5 km long main trunk sewer and collected 40 wastewater samples after 500 m, 2400 m and 5000 m each according to the expected travel times of the Ag-NP. Excellent mass closure of the Ag derived by multiplying the measured Ag concentrations times the volumetric flow rates indicate an efficient transport of the Ag-NP without substantial losses to the sewer biofilm. Ag-NP reacted with raw wastewater in batch experiments were sulfidized to roughly 15% after 5 h reaction time as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). However, acid volatile sulfide (AVS) concentrations were substantially higher in the sewer channel (100 ¥ìM) compared to the batch experiments (3 ¥ìM; still sufficient to sulfidize spiked 2 ¥ìM Ag) possibly resulting in a higher degree of sulfidation in the sewer channel. We further investigated the removal efficiency of 10 nm and 100 nm Ag- and gold (Au)-NP coated with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone in activated sludge batch experiments. We obtained very high removal efficiencies (¡99%) irrespective of size and coating for Ag- and Au-NP, the latter confirming that the particle type was of minor importance with respect to the degree of NP removal. We observed a strong size dependence of the sulfidation kinetics. We conclude that Ag-NP discharged to the wastewater stream will become sulfidized to various degrees in the sewer system and are efficiently transported to the WWTP. The sulfidation of the Ag-NP will continue in the WWTP, but primarily depending on the size the Ag-NP, may not be complete. Very high removal efficiencies in the WWTP will divert most of the Ag-NP mass flow to the digester and only a small fraction of the Ag will be released to surface waters.
In this study, the authors conducted experiments addressing the behavior of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) in sewers and in WWTP. They spiked Ag-NP to a 5 km long main trunk sewer and collected 40 wastewater samples after 500 m, 2400 m and 5000 m each according to the expected travel times of the Ag-NP. They further investigated the removal efficiency of 10 nm and 100 nm Ag- and gold (Au)-NP coated with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone in activated sludge batch experiments.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article
Exposure Or Hazard Target
Method Of Study
Environmental Fate and Transport
Risk Exposure Group
Water Research, 2013, In Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2012.11.060
Kaegi R, Voegelin A, Ort C, Sinnet B, Thalmann B, Krismer J, Hagendorfer H, Elumelu M, Mueller E
Last updated on April 18, 2013
This work is supported in part by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the National Science Foundation
under NSF Award Number EEC-0118007.
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