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Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Regenerative Medicine
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Regenerative medicine is a pioneering field aimed at restoring and regenerating the function of damaged cells, organs and tissues in order to establish normal function. It demands the cross communication of disciplines to develop effective therapeutic stem cell based therapies. Nanotechnology has been instrumental in the development and translation of basic research to the clinically relevant therapies. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been applied to tag, track and activate stem cells offering an effective means of monitoring in vitro and in vivo behaviour. MNPs are comprised of an iron oxide core with a biocompatible biological polymer. Safety is an issue of constant concern and emphasises on the importance of investigating the issue of toxicity. Any indication of toxicity can ultimately limit the therapeutic efficiency of the therapy. Toxicity is highly dependent on the physical, chemical and structural properties of the MNP itself as well as dose and intended use. Few in vitro studies have reported adverse effects of MNP on cells at in vitro in therapeutic doses. However, long term in vivo studies have not been studied as extensively. This review aims to summarise current research in this topic highlighting commonly used toxicity assays to investigate this.
This review aims to summarise current research on the topic of commonly used toxicity assays to investigate the safety of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) used in regenerative medicine, including in vitro and in vivo studies.
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Journal of Nanomaterials, 2012, Article ID 614094 (11 pp)
Journal of Nanomaterials
Markides H, Rotherham M, El Haj AJ
Article ID 614094
Last updated on October 24, 2012
This work is supported in part by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the National Science Foundation
under NSF Award Number EEC-0118007.
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