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Insight into the Cellular Internalization and Cytotoxicity of Graphene Quantum Dots
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Graphene quantum dots (GQDs), owing to their unique morphology, ultra-small lateral sizes, and exceptional properties, hold great promise for many applications, especially in the biomedical field. In this work, the cellular internalization, distribution, and cytotoxicity of the GQDs are explored complementarily using transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopies, and flow cytometry with human gastric cancer MGC-803 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. It is demonstrated that the GQDs are internalized primarily through caveolae-mediated endocytosis. The effects of GQDs on the cell viability, internal cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membranes potential, and cell cycles show that the cytotoxicity of GQDs is lower than that of the micrometer-sized graphene oxide (GO). The low cytotoxicity and size consistence render GQDs appropriate for biomedical application.
In this work, the cellular internalization, distribution, and cytotoxicity of the graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are explored complementarily using transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopies, and flow cytometry with human gastric cancer MGC-803 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article
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Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2(12): 1613-1619 (December 2013)
Advanced Healthcare Materials
Wu C, Wang C, Han T, Zhou X, Guo S, Zhang J
Last updated on January 24, 2014
This work is supported in part by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the National Science Foundation
under NSF Award Number EEC-0118007.
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