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Extensive evaluations of the cytotoxic effects of gold nanoparticles
Link to Journal Abstract
Many in vitro studies have revealed that the interference of dye molecules in traditional nanoparticle cytotoxicity assays results in controversial conclusions. The aim of this study is to establish an extensive and systematic method for evaluating biological effects of gold nanoparticles in mammalian cell lines. Methods We establish the cell-impedance measurement system, a label-free, real-time cell monitoring platform that measures electrical impedance, displaying results as cell index values, in a variety of mammalian cell lines. Cytotoxic effects of gold nanoparticles are also evaluated with traditional in vitro assays. Results Among the six cell lines, gold nanoparticles induce a dose-dependent suppression of cell growth with different levels of severity and the suppressive effect of gold nanoparticles was indirectly associated with their sizes and cellular uptake. Mechanistic studies revealed that the action of gold nanoparticles is mediated by apoptosis induction or cell cycle delay, depending on cell type and cellular context. Although redox signaling is often linked to the toxicity of nanoparticles, in this study, we found that gold nanoparticle-mediated reactive oxygen species generation was not sustained to notably modulate proteins involved in antioxidative defense system. Conclusion The cell-impedance measurement system, a dye-free, real-time screening platform, provides a reliable analysis for monitoring gold nanoparticle cytotoxicity in a variety of mammalian cell lines. Furthermore, gold nanoparticles induce cellular signaling and several sets of gene expression to modulate cellular physical processes. General significance The systematic approach, such as cell-impedance measurement, analyzing the toxicology of nanomaterials offers convincing evidence of the cytotoxicity of gold nanomaterials.
The aim of this study was to establish an extensive and systematic method for evaluating biological effects of gold nanoparticles in mammalian cell lines. The authors establish the cell-impedance measurement system, a label-free, real-time cell monitoring platform that measures electrical impedance, displaying results as cell index values, in a variety of mammalian cell lines. Cytotoxic effects of gold nanoparticles are also evaluated with traditional in vitro assays.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article
Exposure Or Hazard Target
Method Of Study
Material Analysis and Applications
Risk Exposure Group
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, 1830(10): 4960-4973 (October 2013)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
Chuang SM, Lee YH, Liang RY, Roam GD, Zeng ZM, Tu HF, Wang SK, Chueh PJ
Last updated on August 27, 2013
This work is supported in part by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the National Science Foundation
under NSF Award Number EEC-0118007.
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