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Cadmium-Based Quantum Dot Induced Autophagy Formation for Cell Survival via Oxidative Stress
Link to Journal Abstract
Quantum dots (QDs) are one of most utilized nanomaterials in nanocrystalline semiconductors. QDs emit near-infrared fluorescence and can be applied as probes for detecting vasculature and imaging in biological systems. Since QDs have potential in clinical application, the toxicity of QDs needs to be carefully evaluated. In our present study, we elucidate the cytotoxic mechanisms of QDs using a mouse renal adenocarcinoma (RAG) cell line. QDs in RAG cells increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and induced autophagy at 6 h, leading to subsequent apoptosis at 24 h. QDs entered the cells and were located within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), endosome, and lysosome at 6 h and endosome, lysosome, and mitochondria at 24 h. However, QDs only affected mitochondrial function and did not induce ER stress. N-Acetylcysteine, an antioxidant agent, reduced intracellular ROS levels and decreased QD-induced autophagy but enhanced QD-induced cell death. Moreover, 3-methylamphetamine (an autophagy inhibitor) also reduced the cell viability in QD-treated cells. These findings suggest that ROS plays an essential role in the regulation of QD-induced autophagy, which subsequently enhances cell survival. Taken together, these results suggest that oxidative stress-induced autophagy is a defense/survival mechanism against the cytotoxicity of QD.
In this study, the authors elucidate the cytotoxic mechanisms of quantum dots (QDs) using a mouse renal adenocarcinoma (RAG) cell line.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article
Exposure Or Hazard Target
Method Of Study
Risk Exposure Group
Chemical Research in Toxicology, 2013, 26(5): 662-673
Chemical Research in Toxicology
Luo YH, Wu SB, Wei YH, Chen YC, Tsai MH, Ho CC, Lin SY, Yang CS, Lin P
Last updated on June 6, 2013
This work is supported in part by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the National Science Foundation
under NSF Award Number EEC-0118007.
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