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Genome-Wide Assessment in Escherichia coli Reveals Time-Dependent Nanotoxicity Paradigms
Link to Journal Abstract
The use of engineered nanomaterials (eNM) in consumer and industrial products is increasing exponentially. Our ability to rapidly assess their potential effects on human and environmental health is limited by our understanding of nanomediated toxicity. High-throughput screening (HTS) enables the investigation of nanomediated toxicity on a genome-wide level, thus uncovering their novel mechanisms and paradigms. Herein, we investigate the toxicity of zinc-containing nanomaterials (Zn-eNMs) using a time-resolved HTS methodology in an arrayed Escherichia coli genome-wide knockout (KO) library. The library was screened against nanoscale zerovalent zinc (nZn), nanoscale zinc oxide (nZnO), and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) salt as reference. Through sequential screening over 24 h, our method identified 173 sensitive clones from diverse biological pathways, which fell into two general groups: early and late responders. The overlap between these groups was small. Our results suggest that bacterial toxicity mechanisms change from pathways related to general metabolic function, transport, signaling, and metal ion homeostasis to membrane synthesis pathways over time. While all zinc sources shared pathways relating to membrane damage and metal ion homeostasis, Zn-eNMs and ZnCl2 displayed differences in their sensitivity profiles. For example, ZnCl2 and nZnO elicited unique responses in pathways related to two-component signaling and monosaccharide biosynthesis, respectively. Single isolated measurements, such as MIC or IC50, are inadequate, and time-resolved approaches utilizing genome-wide assays are therefore needed to capture this crucial dimension and illuminate the dynamic interplay at the nano-bio interface.
In this paper, the authors investigate the toxicity of zinc-containing nanomaterials (Zn-eNMs) using a time-resolved high-throughput screening (HTS) methodology in an arrayed Escherichia coli genome-wide knockout (KO) library. The library was screened against nanoscale zerovalent zinc (nZn), nanoscale zinc oxide (nZnO), and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) salt as reference.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article
Exposure Or Hazard Target
Method Of Study
Computational and System Modeling
Risk Exposure Group
ACS Nano, 2012, 6(11): 9402-9415
Reyes VC, Li M, Hoek EMV, Mahendra S, Damoiseaux R
Last updated on December 17, 2012
This work is supported in part by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the National Science Foundation
under NSF Award Number EEC-0118007.
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